Maintenance Notice

Due to necessary scheduled maintenance, the JMIR Publications website will be unavailable from Monday, March 11, 2019 at 4:00 PM to 4:30 PM EST. We apologize in advance for any inconvenience this may cause you.

Who will be affected?


Citing this Article

Right click to copy or hit: ctrl+c (cmd+c on mac)

Published on 29.03.18 in Vol 4, No 1 (2018): EMPHNET Sixth Regional Conference

This paper is in the following e-collection/theme issue:


    Worse or Just Different? Self-reported Sleep Characteristics of Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women in the UK Household Longitudinal Study

    Corresponding Author:

    Nora Alafif


    Background: The American Academy of Sleep Medicine include pregnancy-associated sleep disorder (PASD) in its International Classification of Sleep Disorders. PASD is indicated by: either frequent arousals and reduced sleep efficiency or a prolonged habitual sleep duration; and habitual sleep latencies of <10 min.

    Objective: The present study aimed to assess whether pregnant women sleep differently to non-pregnant women, and if so whether any differences might reflect underlying PASD.

    Methods: Methods Data on self-reported sleep characteristics (duration [hours]; latency, disturbance, coughing/snoring, medication and daytime sleepiness [frequency]; and quality [very good, fairly good, fairly bad, very bad]) from Waves 1 and 4 of the UK Household Longitudinal Study were available for n=792 pregnant and n=9,965 age-matched non-pregnant women with complete data on seven potential confounders (age, ethnicity, educational, marital status, employment, parity and household structure). Multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted before and after adjustment for confounding using STATA IC14 using the least unfavorable response as the referent category.

    Results: Pregnant women were more likely to sleep both shorter and longer than 7-9 hrs (RRR = 1.22-1.45), and they were also more likely to struggle to get to sleep within 30 min on a regular basis (RRR = 1.07-1.28). Although pregnant women reported more frequent sleep disturbance than non-pregnant women (RRR = 1.35-3.72), they did not report coughing/snoring more frequently (RRR = 0.89-1.20). Likewise, despite reporting poorer sleep quality than non-pregnant women (RRR = 1.60-2.21), pregnant women were less likely to report using sleep medication on a regular basis (RRR = 0.44-0.55). Finally, pregnant women were more likely to report difficulty staying awake during the day than non-pregnant (RRR = 1.28-1.77).

    Conclusions: The findings of the present study confirm that pregnant women sleep differently to non-pregnant women, although these differences may partly reflect the lower use of medication by pregnant women.

    iproc 2018;4(1):e10561


    Edited by Y Khader; This is a non–peer-reviewed article. submitted 29.03.18; accepted 29.03.18; published 29.03.18

    ©Nora Alafif. Originally published in Iproceedings (, 29.03.2018.

    This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work, first published in Iproceedings, is properly cited. The complete bibliographic information, a link to the original publication on, as well as this copyright and license information must be included.