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Published on 29.03.18 in Vol 4, No 1 (2018): EMPHNET Sixth Regional Conference

Preprints (earlier versions) of this paper are available at, first published Mar 29, 2018.

This paper is in the following e-collection/theme issue:


    Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Breast Self-Examination Among Females Governmental School Teachers in Bethlehem District - Palestine, 2015

    Corresponding Author:

    Liana Haddad


    Background: Breast Self-Examination (BSE) is an important public health screening principle. It is a no cost and easy process whereby women examine their breasts regularly to detect any abnormal swelling or lumps in order to seek if needed a medical aid. According to Palestinian Ministry of Health Annual Report 2014, breast cancer is the first cause of female death among the other cancer causes and most of the cases had been discovered at late and sever stages and 58.9% of them are (15 - 64 years). Bethlehem district stays in the third place among the other districts with cancer incidence rate 111.2 per 100,000 of population (103,550 Females, 106,934 Males).

    Objective: The aim of the study is to evaluate the level of knowledge and practice of BSE among female governmental school teachers in Bethlehem District.

    Methods: A cross sectional study using a structured, self-completed and pre-tested questionnaire designed by the researcher has been used in 2015 in seven schools that randomly selected. A written informed consent from the participant and permission from the minister of education was obtained.

    Results: From what is shown, the majority of the teachers were aware of BSE with percentage 97,3% and 76,9% of them only knew the procedures of BSE and actually 47,6% of them do not make BSE periodically. The study also showed that 57.1% of the respondents knew about the breast cancer from the media, followed by 25, 2% from health workers; in addition, the study revealed 77.6% are aware about the symptoms of breast cancer, while 81.6% showed that is BSE is not enough to diagnose breast cancer.

    Conclusions: Awareness of BSE was high, but the practice was low. It is recommended that public awareness of the importance of BSE be intensified using mass media. And health worker should promote BSE during their contact with clients.

    iproc 2018;4(1):e10568


    Edited by Y Khader; This is a non–peer-reviewed article. submitted 29.03.18; accepted 29.03.18; published 29.03.18

    ©Liana Haddad. Originally published in Iproceedings (, 29.03.2018.

    This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work, first published in Iproceedings, is properly cited. The complete bibliographic information, a link to the original publication on, as well as this copyright and license information must be included.