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Published on 29.03.18 in Vol 4, No 1 (2018): EMPHNET Sixth Regional Conference

Preprints (earlier versions) of this paper are available at, first published Mar 29, 2018.

This paper is in the following e-collection/theme issue:


    Outbreak Investigation of Dengue Fever in District Malir, Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan, 2015

    Corresponding Author:

    Jamshed Khan


    Background: Dengue fever is an acute arboviral disease transmitted to humans by bite of mosquito genus Aedes. On September 13, 2015, private hospital reported cluster of 19 suspected dengue cases from district Malir. In response to this, we initiated an epidemiological and entomological investigation.

    Objective: To know magnitude, risk factors, Contain and suggest recommendations.

    Methods: Descriptive followed by case-control study was carried-out Age- and sex-matched controls were taken with a ratio of 1:2. World Health Organization standard case definition was used to identify suspected and confirmed cases. Active case finding done in health facilities and in community from September 14 to November 10, 2015.Data were analyzed using Epi Info version 7.0. Bivariate analysis done on 95% Confidence interval with 5% margin of error. Blood was collected for confirmation. Entomological surveillance was carried out.

    Results: One hundred five cases identified, and two deaths reported. CFR=1.9%). Eighty-three (79%) were males with attack rate 1.5/1000.Mean age for cases was 26 years (range: 7-84 years). Most affected age group was 21-30 years n=42; 40% with attack rate (2.4/1000). Over all attack rate was 0.9/1000. Uncovered fresh water reservoir around and the house (OR 6.9; 95% CI: 2.9-11.32; P<0.05) non-usage of repellents (OR 3.0; 95%CI: 1.36-3.7; P<0.05), absence of window screens (OR 9.5; 95%CI 6.4-24.3; P<0.05) were statistically significant associations. All cases were confirmed on ELISA and NS1 Antigen. Adult misquotes inside the homes, while Larva and pupa detected in storage fresh water.

    Conclusions: Stagnant of fresh water in and around domestic premises and not using of repellents in homes and larvicides were most probable causes of this outbreak. Failure to implement mosquito preventive control measures may have contributed to this outbreak. Establishment of isolation wards, Mass awareness, distribution of bed nets, spraying mosquito insecticide and fogging contributed to control outbreak.

    iproc 2018;4(1):e10632


    Edited by Y Khader; This is a non–peer-reviewed article. submitted 29.03.18; accepted 29.03.18; published 29.03.18

    ©Jamshed Khan. Originally published in Iproceedings (, 29.03.2018.

    This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work, first published in Iproceedings, is properly cited. The complete bibliographic information, a link to the original publication on, as well as this copyright and license information must be included.