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Published on 29.03.18 in Vol 4, No 1 (2018): EMPHNET Sixth Regional Conference

This paper is in the following e-collection/theme issue:


    Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium Isolates from Commercial Poultry in Punjab, Pakistan

    Corresponding Author:

    Muhammad Farooq Tahir


    Background: Non-typhoid salmonella infections are one of the leading food borne infections worldwide. Similarly, ever increasing antimicrobial resistance has become a major problem to animal as well as human health worldwide. Poultry being the single largest animal protein source in Pakistan is one of the major suspects for both these public health concerns.

    Objective: This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium in commercial poultry flocks of Punjab and to evaluate their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns.

    Methods: Specimens were collected from morbid or dead birds suspected for salmonella infection on the basis of clinical signs or post-mortem lesions brought to five poultry diagnostic laboratories in Punjab between 2014 and 2017. The samples were then processed for bacterial isolation and molecular confirmation through PCR. The isolates were then subjected to antibiotic sensitivity test using disc diffusion method. The susceptibility was determined using CLSI guidelines for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The frequencies and percentages were calculated using Epi info.

    Results: A total of 28150 samples were processed, among them 1.04% (294/28150) were positive. 89.5% (263/294) of the isolates were Salmonella Enteritidis while 10.5% (31/294) were Salmonella Typhimurium. The isolates were most sensitive to Ciprofloxacin and least to doxycycline with 96% (273/294) and 56% (166/294) response rates respectively. 7.8% (23/294) of the isolates were found to be resistant to three or more antibiotics. For other drugs the sensitivity percentages were Gentamicin 86% (254/294), Enrofloxacin 82% (241/294), Amoxicillin 77% (227/294), Norfloxacin 74% (219/294), Colistin 71% (208/294) and Neomycin 67% (197/294).

    Conclusions: Salmonella isolates were found more sensitive to Ciprofloxacin, followed by Gentamicin, Enrofloxacin and Amoxicillin while the isolates were least sensitive to Doxycycline.

    iproc 2018;4(1):e10639


    Edited by Y Khader; This is a non-peer-reviewed article. submitted 29.03.18; accepted 29.03.18; published 29.03.18

    ©Muhammad Farooq Tahir, F Afzal, M Athar. Originally published in Iproceedings (, 29.03.2018.

    This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work, first published in Iproceedings, is properly cited. The complete bibliographic information, a link to the original publication on, as well as this copyright and license information must be included.