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Published on 29.03.18 in Vol 4, No 1 (2018): EMPHNET Sixth Regional Conference

This paper is in the following e-collection/theme issue:


    Outbreak of Brucellosis Among Workers of Cattle Dairy Farm at Renala Khurd- District Okara, Pakistan, January 2017

    Corresponding Author:

    Saima Dil


    Background: Brucellosis is endemic in Pakistan and poses a great challenge owing to nonspecific clinical manifestations. On 7th January 2017 three workers of cattle dairy farm at Renala Khurd reported to have intermittent fever.

    Objective: A team was sent on 8th January 2017 to estimate magnitude of outbreak, evaluate risk factors and recommend control measures.

    Methods: A case was defined as prolonged intermittent fever, profuse night sweats and headache in a worker of cattle dairy farm at Renala Khurd from 7th to 21st January 2017. Cases and controls were matched by age and locality (1:4). Epidemiological information was recorded on a questionnaire. Serological testing was conducted using Rose Bengal plate test & iELISA. Frequencies were calculated, odd ratios determined at 95% confidence interval with p value less than 0.05.

    Results: A total of 9 cases were identified and mean age was 30 year (range 24-42 years). Overall attack rate was 29% and attack rate in cattle attendant was 47%. Among cases 78% (7/9) were involved in milking, feeding, cleaning, 44% (4/9) were habitual consumers of raw milk while 22% (2/9) were drivers and watchmen. Persons consuming contaminated raw milk (OR: 10; 95% CI: 1.4-70.2; P=.024) and workers having direct contact with animals (OR: 8.3; 95% CL: 1.4-49; P=.01) were more likely to have brucellosis. Apart from intermittent fever, night sweats (88%), headache (88%), fatigue (44%) and backache (11%) were the most frequent symptoms. All 9 cases were positive for brucella antibodies.

    Conclusions: The most probable cause of this outbreak was consumption of unprocessed contaminated milk and contact with secretions/excretions of infected animals. Monthly screening of workers, for a period of six months was recommended. Human cases were referred for medical treatment and Department of Health was notified.

    iproc 2018;4(1):e10642


    Edited by Y Khader; This is a non-peer-reviewed article. submitted 29.03.18; accepted 29.03.18; published 29.03.18

    ©Saima Dil, Z Hayat, A Abbass. Originally published in Iproceedings (, 29.03.2018.

    This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work, first published in Iproceedings, is properly cited. The complete bibliographic information, a link to the original publication on, as well as this copyright and license information must be included.